L. David Mech "Dave"

Schenkel’s Classic Wolf Behavior Study Available in English

Below you can download a pdf version of Schenkel’s 1947 “Expressions Studies on Wolves.” This is the study that gave rise to the now outmoded notion of alpha wolves. That concept was based on the old idea that wolves fight within a pack to gain dominance and that the winner is the “alpha” wolf. Today we understand that most wolf packs consist of a pair of adults called “parents” or “breeders,” (not “alphas”), and their offspring.

See www.wolf.org/wolves/learn/scientific/mech_pdfs/267alphastatus_english.pdf for more information.

To download .pdfs of the Schenkel article (1947) click the links below: